Amber/Copal
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
amber / copal green 2 - 2.5 heated with pressure to create color always good to very good Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Requires gentle handling.
amber / copal red 2 - 2.5 Dyed to alter color commonly good to very good Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Avoid prolonged direct sunlight, avoid alcohol and perfumes.Requires gentle handling.
2 - 2.5 heated to alter color usually good to very good
amber / copal yellow, golden brown 2 - 2.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Avoid prolonged direct sunlight, avoid alcohol and perfumes.Requires gentle handling.
2 - 2.5 heated to create sun spangles to improve appearance, deepen color, add spangles commonly good to very good
2 - 2.5 heated to improve clarity commonly very good
2 - 2.5 dyed/stained to alter color rarely variable
amber / copal doublet - all colors 2 - 2.5 assembled to alter color occasionally good Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Requires gentle handling.
pressed amber / copal yellow, golden brown, red 2 - 2.5 heated oils and pressure to fuse and shape smaller pieces sometimes good to very good Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Requires gentle handling.
Amblygonite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
amblygonite, yellow and colorless 5.5 - 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle wear, can be brittle
amblygoniteblue, green, yellow 5.5 - 6 irradiated to alter color usually ** Research in progress
Montebrasite, (amblygonite) 5.5 - 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle wear, can be brittle
Andalusite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
andalusite 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color occasionally excellent
chiastolite 5 - 5.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
viridine 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Apatite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
apatite 5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
5 heated to improve color usually good
5 irradiated to improve color usually good
cat's-eye, apatite 5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
5 heated to improve color often good
Aragonite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
aragonite all colors 3.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Aragonite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. It is easily attacked and dissolved by acids such as vinegar. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Aragonite is generally unsuitable for jewelry
3.5 - 4 dyed to alter color sometimes fair to good
3.5 - 4 waxed/oiled to improve color sometimes fair to good
Azurite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
azurite 3.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Azurite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Azurite is generally unsuitable for jewelry
3.5 - 4 coated to improve appearance and durability occasionally fair to good
3.5 - 4 filled with oil/resin and polymer to stabilize & improve appearance occasionally good
Azurmalachite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
azurmalachite 3.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Azurmalachite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching/breaking. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat.
3.5 - 4 impregnated to improve appearance and durability rarely fair to good
3.5 - 4 filled with oil/resin and polymer to improve appearance and durability rarely good
Bastnaesite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
bastnaesite 4 - 4.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle wear, moderately soft and brittle. Not suitable for jewelry.
Benitoite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
benitoite 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle care.
6.5 heated to improve color sometimes fair to good
Beryl
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
aquamarine (beryl) 7.5 - 8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7.5 - 8 heated to improve color almost always excellent
bixbite, red (beryl) 7.5 - 8 oiled/resin infused to improve clarity and appearance commonly fair to good, may require maintenance Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, and harsh chemicals.
7.5 - 8 Opticon/ExCel™ to improve clarity and appearance sometimes very good Normal Care
goshenite, colorless (beryl) 7.5 - 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
green, yellow (beryl) 7.5 - 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
yellow (beryl) 7.5 - 8 irradiated to produce color usually variable Normal Care, but some stones may fade in prolonged exposure to light or heat.
emerald (beryl) 7.5 - 8 no treatment n/a extremely rare n/a Normal Care
7.5 - 8 dyed/stained to alter color occasionally variable Avoid extreme heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.
7.5 - 8 fracture filled with oil/resin to improve clarity and appearance almost always fair to good, may require maintenance Avoid extreme heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. In addition to the above precautions: Avoid jeweler's torch and recutting.
7.5 - 8, possibly lower fracture filled w/ hardened resin to improve clarity and appearance sometimes fair to good
7.5 - 8, possibly lower ExCel™ to improve clarity and appearance sometimes very good Normal Care
heliodor (beryl) 7.5 - 8 irradiated to improve color almost always good Normal Care
maxixe blue (beryl) 7.5 - 8 irradiated to create the blue color always poor Maxixe beryl is very special. Avoid prolonged exposure to light and heat to avoid quick fading of color.
morganitepink, peach (beryl) 7.5 - 8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7.5 - 8 heated to improve color commonly excellent
7.5 - 8 irradiated to produce color commonly excellent
Bone / Ivory
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
bone / ivory 2 - 3 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Requires gentle handling. Bone and ivory are very soft and may discolor with time. Be mindful of scratching.
2 - 3 bleached to improve color commonly good Bone and ivory are very soft and may discolor with time. Discoloration is due to porosity/absorption of body oils or other substances from wearing. Be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling
2 - 3 dyed/stained to alter color or to look aged often good
2 - 3 impregnated to minimize porosity occasionally good
mammoth (ivory) 2 - 3 impregnated / bleached to improve appearance commonly good Mammoth ivory is very soft and may discolor with time. Discoloration is due to porosity/absorption of body oils or other substances from wearing. Be mindful of scratching Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling
horn 2.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Horn is a soft, organic product. Avoid heat, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling.
2.5 heated to shape often fair
shark teeth *** not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Most shark teeth are actually fossils. Gentle Care.
walrus tusk 2.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Walrus tusks are very soft and may discolor with time. Discoloration is due to porosity/absorption of body oils or other substances from wearing. Be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling
2.5 bleached to even color, improve lustre often good
2.5 stained to add color, appear aged often good
whale teeth 2.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Whale teeth are very soft and may discolor with time. Discoloration is due to porosity/absorption of body oils or other substances from wearing. Be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling
2.5 bleached to even color, improve lustre often very good
2.5 stained to add color, appear aged sometimes fair to good
Cerussite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
cerussite 3.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Very soft gentle care, not suitable for jewelry.
Chalcedony (polycrystalline anf microcrystaline quartz)
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
agate(quartz) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 bleached/dyed/stained/ to alter color commonly good to excellent Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. In addition to above precautions: avoid perfumes, and hairsprays.
blue chalcedony (quartz) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 dyed/stained to alter color commonly fair to good Avoid harsh chemicals, accetone and ultrasonic cleaners. Can be affected by perspiration.
blue, green, paraiba color chalcedony (quartz) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 irradiated to alter color commonly fair to good Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Some stones may fade in light or heat.
6.5 dyed/stained to alter color almost always poor to fair Avoid harsh chemicals, acetone and ultrasonic cleaners. Some stones may fade in light or heat. Can be affected by perspiration.
banded agate (chalcedony) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 dyed/stained to alter color commonly excellent
black onyx (chalcedony) 6.5 dyed/stained to alter color commonly fair to good Avoid harsh chemicals, acetone and ultrasonic cleaners. Dye could run.
6.5 sugar acid to improve color usually excellent Normal Care
bloodstone (chalcedony) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
carnelian / sard (chalcedony) 6.5 heated to improve color usually excellent Normal Care
6.5 dyed/stained to alter color often good to excellent Avoid harsh chemicals, acetone and ultrasonic cleaners. Dye could run.
cat's eye, chalcedony 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 heated to alter color usually excellent
chrysocolla(chalcedony) 2 - 6 depending on purity not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Chrysocolla is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Requires gentle handling.
chrysoprase (chalcedony) 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 heated to improve color occasionally excellent
dendritic agate (chalcedony) 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
dumortierite quartz 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 oiling to reduce appearance of natural fissures occasionally fair Normal Care
fire agate (chalcedony) 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
jasper (quartz) 6 - 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid chemicals, steam, and ultrasonic cleaners.
6 - 6.5 dyed to add color occasionally fair to good
moss agate (quartz) 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
petrified wood (quartz) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 bleached to remove color occasionally good
6.5 heated to improve color occasionally good
Charoite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
charoite 5-6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
5-6 impregnated to improve durability commonly good Avoid hot water, household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
Chrysoberyl
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
alexandrite (chrysoberyl) 8.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
cat's-eye (chrysoberyl) 8.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
8.5 heated to improve color occasionally excellent Normal Care
brown, yellow, green (chrysoberyl) 8.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
8.5 irradiated to create color occasionally excellent Normal Care
8.5 heated to improve color occasionally excellent Normal Care
Clinohumite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
clinohumite 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Requires gentle handling.
Coral
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
black (coral) 3 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 impregnated waxed/oiled to improve appearance and luster commonly good
golden (coral) 3 impregnated waxed/oiled to improve appearance and luster commonly good Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 bleached to lighten color from black almost always very good
orange (coral) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 - 4 dyed/stained to alter color commonly good
3 - 4 impregnated waxed/oiled to improve appearance and luster commonly good
pink (coral) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 - 4 impregnated waxed/oiled to improve appearance and luster commonly good
3 - 4 dyed/stained to alter color commonly good
red (coral) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 - 4 dyed/waxed to improve color and texture commonly good
3 - 4 impregnated with colorless wax or oil to improve quality of material for shaping and polishing commonly good
3 - 4 impregnated with plastic to improve quality of material for shaping and polishing commonly very good
sponge (coral) 3 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 dyed to alter color commonly good
3 impregnated with plastic to improve quality of material for shaping and polishing commonly very good
white (coral) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, steam and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 - 4 enhanced/bleached to alter color commonly good
3 - 4 impregnated waxed/oiled to improve appearance and luster commonly good
Corundum
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
ruby (corundum) 9 no treatment(extremely rare) n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
9 heated to improve colorand clarity usually excellent
9 filled/flux healed to improve clarity commonly good to excellent
9 Beryllium lattice diffusion to improve color occasionally excellent Avoid recutting and polishing, otherwise Normal Care
6 - 9 lead glass filled to improve clarity and color commonly poor Avoid common household chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners .Avoid jewelers torches.
9 surface diffusion to create asterism or color occasionally good Avoid repolishing/recutting and scratching.
9 dyed/stained to alter color rarely poor Avoid harsh chemicals, heat and ultrasonic cleaners.
star rubyall (corundum) 9 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid jewelers torches, otherwise Normal Care
6 - 9 lead glass filled to improve clarity, fill cracks occasionally poor to fair Avoid common household chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
9 surface diffusion to implant star occasionally excellent Avoid repolishing/recutting,scratching and jeweler's torches.
9 heated to improve color sometimes excellent Avoid jewelers torches, otherwise Normal Care
sapphire, blue (corundum) 9 no treatment(rare) n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
9 heated to improve colorand clarity usually excellent Normal Care
9 beryllium lattice diffusion to lighten color occasionally excellent Avoid recutting and polishing, otherwise Normal Care
9 surface diffusion to create or improve color occasionally good Avoid chipping or repolishing
6 - 9 lead glass filled to add color and improve clarity rarely fair to poor Avoid common household chemicals, steam cleaners, ultrasonic cleaners and a jewelers torch.
sapphire, fancy (green, orange, purple, pink, padparadscha, yellow) (corundum) 9 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
9 heated to improve color and clarity usually excellent Normal Care
6 - 9 lead glass filled to improve clarity commonly poor Avoid common household chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
9 beryllium lattice diffusion to improve color commonly excellent Normal Care
sapphire, star blue (corundum) 9 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid jewelers torches, otherwise Normal Care
9 heated improve color sometimes excellent
9 surface diffusion to implant star often excellent Avoid repolishing/recutting,scratching and jeweler's torches.
sapphire, stargray - white (corundum) 9 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid jewelers torches, otherwise Normal Care
9 surface diffusion to implant star occasionally Excellent Avoid repolishing/recutting,scratching and jeweler's torches.
sapphire, black star (corundum) 9 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
9 coating prevent flaking often fair Avoid solvents and ultrasonic cleaners
6 - 9 lead glass filled reduce appearance of cracks sometimes fair to poor Avoid common household chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
Diamond
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
diamond normal color range D - Z 10 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
10 HPHT (high pressure,high temperature) to lighten or change color occasionally excellent Normal Care
10 lasered & bleached with acid to improve clarity often very good Normal Care
10 fracture filled to improve clarity occasionally fair to very good Avoid extreme heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.In addition to the above precautions: Avoid jeweler's torch and recutting.
10 CVD coated to add or minimize color rarely poor to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
diamond color 10 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
10 HPHT (high pressure,high temperature) to improve color occasional/increasingly common excellent Normal Care
10 lasered & filled to improve clarity occasionally very good
10 irradiated to create color often very good to excellent
10 fracture filled to improve clarity sometimes fair to very good Avoid extreme heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.In addition to the above precautions: Avoid jeweler's torch and recutting.
10 CVD coated to add color sometimes poor to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
diamond fancy color 10 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
10 HPHT (high pressure,high temperature) to improve color occasional/increasingly common excellent Normal Care
10 lasered & filled to improve clarity occasionally very good
10 irradiated to create color often very good to excellent
10 fracture filled to improve clarity sometimes fair to very good Avoid extreme heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.In addition to the above precautions: Avoid jeweler's torch and recutting.
10 CVD coated to add color sometimes poor to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
Diaspore
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
diaspore 6.5 - 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Diopside
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
chrome diopside 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Diopside is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives and solvents.
black star (diopside) 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
Shanseres (diopside) 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
Enstatite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
enstatite 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Enstatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Requires gentle handling
Euclase
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
euclase 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Cleaves easily, or is prone to brittleness. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.Wear with care.
Feldspar (orthoclase)
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
amazonite (microcline feldspar) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid hard wear, heat, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.
6.5 heated to improve color unknown very good
6.5 dyed to improve color unknown very good
6.5 impregnated with colorless wax or oil to improve overall appearance and luster unknown good to fair
6.5 impregnated with hardening agents or plastic to improve appearance and durability usually very good
moonstone, adularia (orthoclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
sunstone (orthoclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
Feldspar (plagioclase)
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
albite (plagioclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
andesine-labradorite Red / Green / Orange (plagioclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 - 6.5 diffused to alter color commonly very good Normal Care
labradorite (plagioclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
labradorite yellow (plagioclase feldspar 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
6 - 6.5 irradiated to improve color commonly good Normal, gentle handling. Avoid heat.
sunstone (plagioclase feldspar) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
Flourite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
fluorite 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Very soft stone, requires gentle handling
4 heated to improve color unknown fair to good
4 irradiated to alter/improve color often fair to good
Garnet
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
almandite 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
color change 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
demantoid (andradite) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 low temperature heat to improve color often excellent
hessonite / imperial (grossular) 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Mali 6.5 - 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Mozambique 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
pyrope 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
rhodolite 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
spessartite 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Tanga™ 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
tsavorite (grossular) 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
umbalite, malaya, malaia 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
uvarovite 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Hayüne
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
haüyne / haüynit 5.5 - 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
Hematite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
hematite 5.5 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Hybrid
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
New category of stones: A stone with natural and artificial components, where the two cannot be separated. New category created by a new generation of treatments that add materials to a natural base material. In most cases, undesirable elements of a natural material are removed and replaced by added artificial gem material; glass, polymers or synthetic material. Most require special care. Listing of stones will be added in the coming months.
Imitation / Simulant / Man-Made
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
helenite (glass) 5 - 5.5 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
hematine 6.5 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
glass, man-made 5 - 6 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
mandarin ice 5 - 6 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
opal (artificial polymer based) 4 - 5 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
paraiba ice 5 - 6 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
zandrite 5 - 6 man-made n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
Iolite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
iolite (cordierite) 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Jadeite & Nephrite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
jadeite jadeall colors 6.5 - 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
6.5 - 7 waxed/oiled to improve appearance commonly good
6.5 - 7 Bleached/impregnated (B-Jade) to improve appearance often good
6.5 - 7 dyed/stained to add color often good Avoid strong light, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
nephrite jadeall colors 6 - 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 - 6.5 dyed/stained to add color rarely unknown Avoid strong light, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Discoloration may occur with time.
Jeremejevite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
jeremejevite 6.5 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Kornerupine
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
kornerupine 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
kornerupine cat's eye 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
Kyanite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
kyanite 5 & 7, depending on direction no treatment n/a n/a n/a Moderately soft and brittle, so be mindful of scratching.
5 & 7, depending on direction heated to create color sometimes good
5 & 7, depending on direction oiled/resin infused to improve clarity occasionally fair Moderately soft and brittle, so be mindful of scratching.
Lab-Created
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
alexandrite 8.5 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
cubic zirconia 8 - 8.5 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
8 - 8.5 CVD coated to add or minimize color rarely poor to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals. Coating can be scratched.
forsterite 7 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
opal 6 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle care
stronium titanate 5 - 5.5 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling Stronium Titanate is a soft stone, so be mindful of scratching.
yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) 8.5 lab created n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Lapis Lazuli
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
lapis lazuli 5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid exposure to acids, heat and ultrasonic cleaners.
5 - 6 waxed/oiled to improve appearance commonly fair
5 - 6 heated/dyed/stained to improve color commonly poor to good
5 - 6 impregnated with plastic or other hardening agent to improve durability and appearance rarely good
Lazulite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
lazulite 5 - 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Avoid strong light, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
Lepidolite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
lepidolite 2.5 - 3 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Lepidolite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Requires gentle handling
Larimar
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
larimar (pectolite) 4.5 - 5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Larimar is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Requires gentle handling
Magnesite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
magnesite 4 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle care, not suitable for jewelry. Avoid ultasonic cleaner and pickling solutions; they will destroy the stone.
Malachite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
malachite 3.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Malachite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals, abrasives, heat and ultrasonic cleaners.
3.5 - 4 coated with colorless wax to improve appearance occasionally fair
3.5 - 4 impregnated with plastic or other hardening agents to improve appearance and durability often good
3.5 - 4 dyed to improve color uniformity occasionally good
Maw Sit Sit
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
maw sit-sit 6 - 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Muscovite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
muscovite 2.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Muscovite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Requires gentle handling
Natural Glass
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
moldavite (natural glass) 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle care
obsidian (volcanic glass) 5 - 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
glass, Lybian desert 5 - 5.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle care
Natural Rock
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
goldenite jade 6 - 6.5 layered gold leaf adds gold veins always good Avoid abrasives, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
rhyolite (igneous rock) 6 - 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Opal
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
fire opal 5.5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid water, heat and solvents. Fire Opal is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching.
5.5 - 6 impregnated to improve appearance commonly good
5.5 - 6 dyed/stained to add color sometimes good
boulder opal 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 oiled/resin infused to improve appearance and clarity occasionally fair Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
cat's-eye opal 6 impregnated to improve appearance and durability usually good Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
matrix opal 6 or possibly lower no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care, gentle care
6 or possibly lower sugar acid/smoke to darken color commonly good Avoid heat, solvents, recutting and repolishing.
mosaic opal triplet, glass top 5 - 6 assembled product to create opal effect from smaller stones commonly fair to good Avoid heat, solvents, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
mosaic opal triplet, quartz top 7 assembled product to create opal effect from smaller stones commonly fair to good Avoid heat, solvents, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
peruvian opal 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
6 dyed to enhance color sometimes good Avoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
opal doublet 6 assembled product to improve color and/or durability always good Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
opal triplet, glass top 5 - 6 assembled product to improve color and/or durability always fair to good Avoid heat, solvents, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
opal triplet, quartz top 7 assembled product to improve color and/or durability always fair to good Avoid heat, solvents, chemicals, ultrasonic, and repolishing.
solid opal, black, gray, white base 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid excessive heat, solvents, and ultrasonic cleaners.
6 impregnated, oiled/resin infused to help prevent crazing rarely fair
6 coated to improve color occasionally fair to good
Pearl
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
abalone pearl 2.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Abalone is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. In addition to above precautions: avoid perfumes, and hairsprays. Requires gentle handling.
cultured pearl freshwater & saltwater (akoya, freshwater mussel) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid cosmetics, perfumes, hairsprays, heat and household chemicals.
3 - 4 bleached to whiten and remove discoloration usually excellent
3 - 4 dyed/stained to add color commonly good
3 - 4 dyed/stained, potential colored nuclei to add color occasionally variable
3 - 4 irradiated to create color occasionally very good
3 - 4 coated to even color, improve lustre often - increasingly common fair to good
cultured Tahitian, South Sea and keshi 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid cosmetics, perfumes, hairsprays, heat and household chemicals.
3 - 4 bleached to create more even color or lighten often very good
3 - 4 dyed to add color commonly good
mabe 3 - 4 ASSEMBLED PRODUCT: coated, dyed, bleached, filled w/hardened substance + a mother-of-pearl back. to improve color and durability always fair to very good Avoid cosmetics, perfumes, hairsprays, heat and household chemicals.
natural pearlvery rare (scallop, conch, clam, oyster) 3 - 4 bleached to whiten and remove discoloration usually very good Avoid cosmetics, perfumes, hairsprays, heat and household chemicals.
3 - 4 dyed/stained w/-w/o heat to alter color rarely good to very good
Peridot
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
peridot 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid ultrasonic cleaners
6.5 impregnated, oiled/waxed to improve appearance rarely fair to good Avoid sudden temperature changes, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
Pyrite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
marcasite (pyrite) 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid acids and chemicals.
pyrite 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
3 - 4 gold plated to look like gold sometimes very good
Petalite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
petalite 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Avoid rough handling, ultrasonic cleaners.
Pezzotaite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
pezzotaite 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Phenakite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
phenakite 7.5 - 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care, but avoid sudden temperature changes.
Prehnite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
prehnite 6 - 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care, but avoid sudden temperature changes.
Quartz
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
amethyst 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid extreme heat, avoid jewelers torch
7 heated/irradiated to improve color occasionally excellent
ametrine 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid extreme heat, avoid jewelers torch
7 heated to improve color often excellent
citrine (all types) 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid jewelers torches.
7 heated to alter color usually excellent
lemon citrineouro verde 7 irradiated to create color always excellent Normal Care
dendritic quartz 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 heated to alter color unknown excellent Normal Care
7 irradiated to create color commonly good Avoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
blue moon quartz 7 heated to create effect always excellent Normal Care
latte quartz 7 irradiated/heated to alter color usually excellent Normal Care
lazulated quartz 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Avoid heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing
lilac quartz 7 heated to improve color occasionally excellent Normal Care
mystic quartz 7 CVD to produce mystic quartz usually very good Chipping may reveal natural color, so avoid abrasions.Cannot be recut or repolished. Avoid heat,chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
pietersite, henanite 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
prasiolite 7 irradiated/ annealed to alter color always very good Avoid a jeweler's torch.
quartz w/special inclusions (actinolite, confetti, medusa, leopard, strawberry) 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a While they are a 7 in hardness, a proliferation of inclusions may alter this, either strengthening or weakening a material.
quench crackled, emerald green 7 heated/cooled, dyed to add color and inclusions commonly very good Avoid heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing
quench crackled 7 heated/cooled, dyed to add color and inclusions commonly good - poor, depending on type of dye used
rose quartz 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 dyed to add color commonly good Avoid heat, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing
rutilated quartz 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
smoky quartz 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 irradiated to create color usually good
rock crystal 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
hawk's-eye, blue tiger's eye 6.5 - 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 - 7 chemical bleaching with acid or bleaching agents to alter color usually excellent
tiger's-eye, brown 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 chemical bleaching with acid or bleaching agents to alter color often excellent
tiger's-eye, red 6.5 heated to change from gold to red always excellent Normal Care
6.5 chemical bleaching with acid or bleaching agents to alter color sometimes excellent
6.5 dyed to alter color sometimes very good Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
tourmalinated quartz 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Quartzite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
aventurine (quartzite) 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 dyed to improve color often good to excellent Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat.
how lite white 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Norman Care
how lite other colors 6..5 dyed/stained to add color commonly good to very good Avoid harsh chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and steaming.
quartzite 6 - 6.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 - 6.5 dyed to alter color commonly excellent Avoid chemicals, heat and ultrasonic cleaners
6 - 6.5 impregnated with colorless plastic to improve appearance, and durability commonly good
Rhodizite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
rhodizite 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Rhodochrosite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
rhodochrosite 3.5 - 4 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Rhodochrosite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching or chipping. Requires gentle handling.
Rhodonite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
rhodonite 5.5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling
5.5 - 6 dyed/stained to add color occasionally poor Normal, gentle handling. Avoid steam.
Sapphirine
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sapphirine 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Scapolite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
scapolite yellow 5.5 - 6 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid jeweler's torch.
scapolite violet 5.5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Avoid jeweler's torch.
5.5 - 6 irradiated to produce violet color occasionally poor to fair Normal, gentle handling. Avoid jeweler's torch. When exposed to bright light color may fade.
5.5 - 6 heated to produce violet color rarely good
Scheelite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
scheelite 4.5 - 5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle care, not suitable for jewelry
Serpentine
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
serpentine 2.5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Serpentine is very soft, so be mindful of scratching Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Requires gentle handling
2.5 - 6 dyed/stained to alter color commonly fair to good Serpentine is very soft, so be mindful of scratching Color may fade. Requires gentle handling. Avoid steam and heat, could remove dye.
2.5 - 6 impregnated, waxed/oiled to improve hardness and luster commonly good to very good Serpentine is very soft, so be mindful of scratching Avoid ultrasonic, chemicals, and solvents. Requires gentle handling
Shell
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
abalone (shell) 3 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Abalone is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. In addition to above precautions: avoid perfumes, and hairsprays. Requires gentle handling.
3 - 4 dyed to add color commonly good
3 - 4 stabilized prevent porosity occasionally fair
ammolite doublet 3.5 - 4 assembled to improve durability usually fair to good Ammolite is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Requires gentle handling.
ammolite triplet 6 assembled glass top to improve durability usually excellent Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. Requires gentle handling.
7 assembled quartz top to improve durability usually excellent
ammonite (fossil) 3.5 - 4 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal care
mother of pearl (shell) 3 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Mother of pearl is very soft and porous, so avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
3 dyed/stained to alter color commonly good to very good
3 stabilized to reduce porosity, to stabilize the stone sometimes fair to good
shell (oyster, paua, conch, clam, scallop) 3 - 4 dyed/stained to alter color commonly fair to good Shell is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid ultrasonic, chemicals, and solvents. Requires gentle handling.
3 - 4 stabilized to reduce porosity, to stabilize the stone commonly fair to good
Sillimanite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sillimanite 6 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling.
sillimanite cat's eye 6 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
Sinhalite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sinhalite 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Gentle care, moderately soft.. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners.
Sodalite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sodalite 5.5 - 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
5.5 - 6 dyed/stained to alter color sometimes fair Special Care required as dye may fade. Avoid steam and ultra sonic cleaners.
Sphene
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sphene 5 - 5.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Sphene is a soft stone, so be mindful of scratching.
5 - 5.5 heated to create red or orange color rarely fair to good
Sphalerite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sphalerite 3.5 - 4 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Sphalerite is a very soft stone, so be mindful of scratching. It is generally not suited for jewelry use.
Spinel
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
spinel 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
Spodumene
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
hiddenite 6.5 - 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Some stones cleave or fracture easily. Wear with care.
6.5 - 7 irradiated to create color rarely poor Gentle care. Avoid prolonged exposure to light and heat to prevent color fading. Some stones cleave or fracture easily. Wear with care. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners
kunzite pink / violet 6.5 - 7 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Gentle care. Prolonged exposure to light, especially UV and sunlight, will cause fading. Some stones cleave or fracture easily. Wear with care.
6.5 - 7 irradiated to improve color commonly fair
6.5 - 7 heated to improve color commonly fair
yellow, Teradora™ 6.5 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Gentle care. Prolonged exposure to light, especially UV and sunlight, will cause fading. Some stones cleave or fracture easily. Wear with care.
7.5 irradiated to create color sometimes poor Gentle care. Prolonged exposure to light, especially UV and sunlight, will cause fading. Some stones cleave or fracture easily. Wear with care.
Sugilite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sugilite 6 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 dyed to improve color occasionally good Avoid solvents, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
Taaffeite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
taaffeite 8 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care and handling
Topaz
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
sky, swiss, london, super 8 irradiated and annealed to create color almost always excellent Normal Care
8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a
8 CVD coated to add color commonly fair to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
brown 8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a May fade with exposure to sunlight.
8 irradiated to create color occasionally varies
green 8 irradiated to create color occasionally poor Color fades in exposure to sunlight.
8 CVD coated to add color commonly fair to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
mystic series,pink, red, ocean, glacier, patriot, canary, champagne, orchid, dawn, teal, kiwi, etc. 8 CVD coated to add color commonly fair to good Color may be affected by polishing, recutting, ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals.
imperial 8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
8 heated to improve color usually excellent Normal Care
8 irradiated to improve color sometimes variable Avoid heat and strong light.
yellow / orange 8 irradiated to create color occasionally variable Avoid heat and strong light.
8 heated to improve color usually excellent Normal Care
white (colorless) 8 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
8 heated to improve color occasionally excellent
Tourmaline
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
indicolite 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color commonly excellent
7 - 7.5 oiled/resin infused to improve appearance occasionally fair to good Avoid steaming, harsh chemicals, ultrasonic, and temperature changes.
achroite, colorless 7-7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
cat's-eye tourmaline 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
chrome tourmaline 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
dravite, brown 7 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
green, blue 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color commonly excellent
7 - 7.5 oiled/resin infused to improve appearance occasionally fair to good Avoid steaming, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and temperature changes.
paraiba / cuprian 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 oiled/resin infused to improve clarity sometimes fair to good
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color commonly excellent
pink, red (rubellite), purple 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color occasionally excellent
7 - 7.5 irradiated to create color commonly excellent
7 - 7.5 oiled/resin infused to improve appearance occasionally fair to good Avoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
7 - 7.5 dyed/stained to alter color rarely poor to fair Avoid abrupt temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
schorl 3 dyed/stained to improve color and texture commonly good Avoid ultrasonic cleaners and extreme heat. Treat gently due to softness of the coral.
3 impregnated with colorless wax or oil to improve texture commonly good
3 impregnated with plastic to improve texture commonly very good
yellow / orange 7 - 7.5 heated to improve color rarely excellent Normal Care
7 - 7.5 irradiated to create color rarely very good
watermelon 7 - 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
7 - 7.5 heated to improve color commonly excellent
Turquoise
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
turquoise 5 - 6 impregnated, waxed/oiled to improve color and luster commonly poor to fair Avoid hot water, household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
5 - 6 dyed/stained to improve color often poor to good
5 - 6 stabilized to improve durability and appearance commonly very good
Ulexite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
ulexite 2.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Avoid hot water, household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
2.5 coated to improve durability sometimes good
Unakite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
unakite 6 - 6.5 No Treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6 - 6.5 Impregnated to improve durability rarely good Avoid hot water, household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
Variscite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
variscite 4.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a Normal, gentle handling. Variscite is a soft stone, so be mindful of scratching.
4.5 impregnated with colorless plastic to improve durability and for shaping and polishing commonly good Avoid exposure to hot water, heat, steam, chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
4.5 dyed/stained to improve color often fair to good Avoid temperature changes, heat, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
Witherite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
witherite 3.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Very soft and may be attacked by acids. Not suitable for jewelry.
Wulfenite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
wulfenite 2.5 - 3 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Very soft , careful handling
Zircon
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
blue 7.5 heated to create blue almost always fair to good Normal, gentle handling. Avoid abrasives and strong UV light.
colorless 7.5 heated to lighten color almost always fair to good
green / brown 6.5 - 7.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a
hyacinth, pink 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a
7.5 heated to produce color commonly fair to good
imperial 7.5 heated to produce color almost always good
red 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a
7.5 heated to improve color commonly good
yellow 7.5 no treatment n/a n/a n/a
7.5 heated to improve color rarely good
Zoisite
gemstone/types hardness enhancement method(s) purpose frequency stability/durability care and handling
ruby - zoisite, anyolite 6.5 - 7 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
tanzanite 6.5 heated to improve color almost always excellent Normal, gentle handling
6.5 coated to improve color sometimes fair Gentle wear, avoid ultrasonics and high heat.
yellow, pink, orange, colorless (tanzanite) 6.5 not known to be treated n/a n/a n/a Normal Care
6.5 heated to improve color almost always excellent Normal, gentle handling
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