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The name rutile comes from the Latin rutilas, meaning "reddish," as this mineral is usually red to golden in color. Rutile forms in a wide array of habits, and is often seen as an inclusion within gems, either in large needles that make bold patterns, or fine, microscopic fibers that cause chatoyancy and asterism in gems. It is highly refractive, and is occasionally found in facetable sizes.

Rutile Polished
Rutile Classification
Common Name Rutile
Rutile Optical Properties
Transparency Opaque-Transparent
Dispersion Strength: Extreme Fire Value: 0.33
Refractive Index Over the Limit 2.616-2.903
Birefringence 0.287
Optic Character Uniaxial
Optic Sign Positive
Polariscope Reaction Doubly Refractive (DR)
Fluorescence SWUV: Inert
LWUV: Inert
CCF Reaction None
Pleochroism Dichroic, Strong, varying shades of body color
Rutile Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 6-6.5
Streak Grayish Black, Pale Brown, Light Yellow
Specific Gravity 4.200-4.300 Typical:4.26
Toughness Fair
Luster Adamantine, Submetallic, Metallic
Fracture Conchoidal, Uneven
Cleavage Good, in two directions
Rutile Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name titanium oxide
Chemical Formula TiO2
Crystal System Tetragonal
Chemistry Classification Oxide

Rutile Colors

  • Brown Rutile Brown
  • Red Rutile Red
  • Yellow Rutile Yellow
  • Black Rutile Black

Rutile Spectra

Jewelry Television acknowledges the significant scientific contributions of John S Harris, FGA to the study of gemstone spectra and with deep appreciation to him, acknowledges the use of his images and related notes about gemstones and their spectra in the educational materials on this website.

Countries of Origin

Myanmar; Sri Lanka; Russian Federation (the); Brazil


Normal, gentle care

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Creation Classification

Rutile (Synthetic)

Synthetic rutile can be produced synthetically by either the Czochralski method or flame fusion method.Because of rutile's high refractive index, it was used as an early diamond simulant. However, it is rarely used today as such because of its low hardness.Synthetic gems have the same chemical, optical, and physical properties of their natural counterparts, but are a more cost-effective alternative to a natural gem.

Rutile (Synthetic) Rutile
Rutile (Synthetic) Classification
Common Name Rutile (Synthetic)
Rutile (Synthetic) Optical Properties
Dispersion Strength: extreme fire Value: 0.33
Refractive Index Over the Limit 2.616-2.903
Birefringence 0.287
Fluorescence SWUV: Inert
LWUV: Inert
Pleochroism Dichroic, strong, varying shades of body color
Rutile (Synthetic) Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 4.23
Inclusions Synthetic rutile is generally flawless but gas bubbles are possible.
Tim Matthews


Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.