Ivory

saf-ahyuh r

Ivory has long been treasured for its beautiful white color and ability to be finely carved. As opposed to bone or horn, ivory is derived from the teeth and tusks of animals. Because of the devastating impact of poaching due to the ivory trade, the importation and sale of such materials is severely restricted or banned in many countries.

Ivory Polished
Ivory Classification
Common Name Ivory
Species Organic
Ivory Optical Properties
Transparency Translucent - Opaque
Refractive Index 1.535-1.540
Polariscope Reaction Aggregate (AGG)
Fluorescence SWUV: weak to moderate bluish white or violet blue
LWUV: weak to strong bluish white or violet blue
Pleochroism None
Ivory Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 2.2-2.8
Streak White
Specific Gravity 1.700-2.000
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Elephant and mammoth ivory will have wavy or intersecting curved lines in a v shaped pattern called engine turning effect. Mammoth or Moscow ivory tends to have more cracks than modern ivory. Walrus ivory or sea ivory is oval in cross section and the center has a rough bumpy appearance. Whale ivory comes from the teeth of sperm whales and can be found in antique Inuit carvings and scrimshaw. Narwhal ivory is hollow in the middle and tree-ring like growth patterns and a right to left spiral pattern.
Luster Greasy, Dull
Fracture Splintery
Cleavage None
Ivory Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name calcium hydroxyl phosphate
Chemical Formula Dentine from teeth or modified teeth of mammals such as elephant, mammoth, hippopotamus, warthog, narwal or walrus
Crystal System NA
Chemistry Classification Organic

Ivory Colors

  • Brown Ivory Brown
  • Yellow Ivory Yellow
  • White Ivory White

Countries of Origin

Niger (the); Papua New Guinea; Cambodia; Gambia (the); Kazakhstan; Paraguay; Solomon Islands; Montserrat; Unknown; Mali; Guadeloupe; Panama; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Argentina; Seychelles; Belize; Zambia; Bahrain; Guinea-Bissau; Saint Barthelemy; Namibia; Finland; Georgia; Yemen; Tanzania, United Republic Of; Eritrea; Puerto Rico; Viet Nam; Aruba; Madagascar; Libya; Sweden; Malawi; Andorra; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Liechtenstein; Russian Federation (the); Poland; Bulgaria; Jordan; United States Minor Outlying Islands (the); Tunisia; Tuvalu; Kenya; French Polynesia; Djibouti; Lebanon; Azerbaijan; Cuba; Mauritania; Saint Lucia; Guernsey; Congo (the Democratic Republic of the); Mayotte; Israel; San Marino; Australia; Tajikistan; Myanmar; Cameroon; Gibraltar; Cyprus; Malaysia; Iceland; Oman; Bosnia And Herzegovina; Armenia; Gabon; Korea (the Republic of); Luxembourg; Brazil; Algeria; Cabo Verde; Jersey; Slovenia; Colombia; Ecuador; Iran (Islamic Republic of); United States of America (the); Vanuatu; Honduras; Italy; Antarctica; Turks and Caicos Islands (the); Nauru; Haiti; Afghanistan; Burundi; British Indian Ocean Territory (the); Singapore; French Guiana; American Samoa; Christmas Island; China; Martinique; Sudan (the); Kyrgyzstan; Comoros (the); United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the); Reunion; Saint Pierre And Miquelon; Cote D'Ivoire; Bhutan; Multiple; Romania; Togo; Cocos (Keeling) Islands (the); Dominican Republic (the); Uzbekistan; Holy See (the); Netherlands (the); Pitcairn; Zimbabwe; Montenegro; Dominica; Indonesia; Benin; Angola; Virgin Islands (British); Brunei Darussalam; Portugal; New Caledonia; Grenada; Moldova (the Republic of); Greece; Latvia; Mongolia; Morocco; Guatemala; Guyana; Iraq; Chile; Nepal; Cayman Islands (the); Isle of Man; Ukraine; Ghana; Anguilla; Saint Vincent And The Grenadines; India; Canada; Maldives; Turkey; Belgium; Faroe Islands (the); South Africa; Bermuda; Aland Islands; Jamaica; Peru; Turkmenistan; Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of); Germany; United Arab Emirates (the); Fiji; Tokelau; Hong Kong; Guinea; Chad; Somalia; Thailand; Cook Islands (the); Equatorial Guinea; Kiribati; Costa Rica; Saint Martin (French part); Kuwait; Nigeria; Central African Republic (the); Palestine, State of; Croatia; Sao Tome And Principe; Syrian Arab Republic; Sri Lanka; Uruguay; Timor-Leste; Switzerland; Samoa; Spain; Liberia; Burkina Faso; Swaziland; Lao People's Democratic Republic (the); Palau; Estonia; Wallis and Futuna; Niue; Svalbard And Jan Mayen; Austria; Mozambique; El Salvador; Monaco; Guam; Lesotho; Tonga; Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands; Western Sahara; Hungary; Republic of Kosovo; South Sudan; Congo (the); Japan; Belarus; Curacao; Mauritius; Taiwan (Province of China); Bouvet Island; Albania; Bolivia (Plurinational State of); Norfolk Island; Trinidad And Tobago; Virgin Islands (U.S.); New Zealand; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Senegal; Micronesia (Federated States of); Ethiopia; Macedonia (the former Yugoslav Republic of); Czechia; Egypt; Falkland Islands (the) [Malvinas]; Marshall Islands (the); Sierra Leone; Malta; Saudi Arabia; South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands; Pakistan; Ireland; Qatar; Slovakia; France; Lithuania; Serbia; Bahamas (the); French Southern Territories (the); Rwanda; Saint Kitts And Nevis; Bangladesh; Barbados; Nicaragua; Norway; Botswana; Macao; Denmark; Mexico; Northern Mariana Islands (the); Uganda; Suriname; Philippines (the); Greenland; Antigua And Barbuda

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Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.