Topaz

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December Birthstone

Topaz can be both very common (when clear, or in certain colors like brown, which can turn blue when treated) and very rare (when found in natural beautiful colors rare to the species, like pink and red). Topaz's popularity stems from the gem's good wearability and affordability. Topaz is also often altered with special surface treatments to give it unusual colors and iridescent effects, like mystic, ocean, kiwi, and orchid topaz. Topaz is also a popular birthstone, as blue topaz is December's primary birthstone and yellow topaz is a birthstone for November.

Topaz Polished
Topaz Classification
Common Name Topaz
Species Topaz
Topaz Optical Properties
Transparency Transparent
Dispersion Strength: Weak Fire Value: 0.014
Refractive Index 1.606-1.644 Tolerance: (+0.010/-0.010)
Birefringence 0.008-0.01
Optic Character Biaxial
Optic Sign Positive
Polariscope Reaction Doubly Refractive (DR)
Fluorescence SWUV: Variable
LWUV: Variable
CCF Reaction Surface treated green: pink to red, blue gems may appear yellowish
Pleochroism Dichroic, weak to moderate, varying shades of body color
Topaz Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 8
Streak White
Specific Gravity 3.490-3.570 Range:+/-0.04 Typical:3.530
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Blue stones have Type I clarity for blue and all other colors are type II clarity. Stones sometimes contain long tube-like cavities containing liquid, healed fractures and areas that look like they are starting to cleave. Stones might include 2-phase and 3-phase inclusions some of which contain more than one liquid that have not been mixed. Stones have a coating on the pavilion or crown of stone There might scratches of treated surface of the stone that show colorless areas underneath. Surface treated green topaz is blue green in appearance and looks spotty there might also be blue color concentrations in surface reaching fractures.
Luster Vitreous
Stability Good
Fracture Conchoidal, Uneven
Cleavage Perfect, in one direction
Topaz Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name fluorosilicate of aluminum with hydroxyl
Chemical Formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2
Crystal System Orthorhombic
Chemistry Classification Silicate

Topaz Colors

  • Red Topaz Red
  • Yellow Topaz Yellow
  • White Topaz White
  • Red Topaz Red
  • Purple Topaz Purple
  • Pink Topaz Pink
  • Orange Topaz Orange
  • Multi-color Topaz Multi-color
  • Green Topaz Green
  • Gray Topaz Gray
  • Colorless Topaz Colorless
  • Brown Topaz Brown
  • Blue Topaz Blue
  • Bi-color Topaz Bi-color
  • Blue Topaz Blue
  • Blue Topaz Blue
  • Blue Topaz Blue
  • Blue Topaz Blue

Alternate Names

Sherry Topaz, Hyacinth Topaz, Imperial Topaz, Precious Topaz, Swiss Blue, London Blue, Mystic Topaz

Countries of Origin

Tanzania, United Republic Of; Myanmar; Afghanistan; Romania; United States of America (the); Cambodia; Sri Lanka; Madagascar; Thailand; Switzerland; Bolivia (Plurinational State of); French Polynesia; India; Mozambique; Pakistan; Unknown; Botswana; China; Namibia; Russian Federation (the); Brazil; Mexico; Nigeria

History

The stones in the blue shades of topaz are Sky Blue, Swiss Blue, and London Blue. Sky blue is very much like aquamarine in its color range. London blue is a darker-blue tone and Swiss blue is the bright, electric, more vibrant blue of the three. Swiss blue is one of the prettiest and most popular of the blue topaz with its intense blue color range. Described as vibrant, electric, or super blue, Swiss blue topaz can be compared to the rich colors of the Caribbean Sea. Whichever you choose to brighten your day, the topaz blues are well-liked, gorgeous, and affordable. Topaz is a very popular gemstone. Why? Because it delivers a winning one-two punch of wear-ability and affordability. Plus, it's a knockout when paired with many colored stones. Topaz is also a popular birthstone, as blue topaz is December's primary birthstone and yellow topaz is a birthstone option for November. Some April babies wear white topaz as an alternative to the more expensive diamond. Topaz has been around for many centuries, and although not as well-known as the big four precious stones, it has its own, well-deserved following. An eight on the scale of hardness, it can easily stand up to regular wear. It's commonly treated, which is okay with us. The treatments give it intensified color and beauty. Topaz has a lot to offer and a lot to recommend it. No wonder it's so popular!

Care

Normal care for colorless and untreated or heated yellow, orange, imperial topaz, varieties of blue topaz stones. Brown and champagne stones may fade with exposure to sunlight. Color will fade in green topaz stones when exposed to sunlight and high heat. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners, alcohol, and harsh chemicals, repolishing, scratching or abrading CVD coated stones because color coating may be chipped or scratched off.

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More About Topaz

During the Middle Ages, topaz was invested with many powers. It was believed that it could strengthen the mind and prevent death. It was once recommended as a cure for madness as well as a talisman to increase wisdom and prudence. Many believed that it could cool a bad temper and boiling water.

Topaz Gemstone

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Species/Variety

Colorless Topaz

Colorless topaz is often called white topaz in the trade. The material from Klein Spitzkoppe, Namibia has been marketed under the misnomer “Silver Topaz”. Colorless topaz is often brown topaz that has been heated to remove the color. Colorless topaz is frequently treated to create blue or Mystic® topaz.

Colorless Topaz Topaz
Colorless Topaz Classification
Common Name Colorless Topaz
Colorless Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.49
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Two-phase and three-phase inclusions, iridescence in fractures
Stability Good

Precious Topaz

Some gem experts will only call stones that are yellow or orange precious topaz, but others will apply the term to any topaz that does not display a strong multicolor effect. The color can be attributed to chromium in the stone. The stones are usually heated to bring out the reddish coloration in the material.

Precious Topaz Topaz
Precious Topaz Classification
Common Name Precious Topaz
Precious Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.52
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Two-phase and three-phase inclusions
Stability Good

Pink or Precious Pink Topaz

Pink topaz is known to come from Pakistan, Brazil and the Sanarlza River in Russia and the color comes from Chromium in the stone. The pink stones from Katlang, Pakistan have a slight violet tone and do not need to be treated. The stones from Brazil are typically heat treated to obtain their pink color.

Pink or Precious Pink Topaz Topaz
Pink or Precious Pink Topaz Classification
Common Name Pink or Precious Pink Topaz
Pink or Precious Pink Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.51
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Cleavage cracks, Two-phase inclusions, swirls associated with parallel cleavage
Stability Good

Mystic Topaz

Mystic Topaz® first appeared in September 1998 at the Hong Kong Jewelry Fair, but it took a few years for designers and high-end jewelry manufacturers to realize its unquestionable charm. Mystic Topaz® begins with a natural topaz gemstone that was created millions of years ago, that is then made even more beautiful and desirable with the assistance of modern technology. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process deposits a thin film onto part of the surface of a white topaz gem, creating an eye-catching rainbow effect as light passes through the gem, which results in an unbelievable array of colors.

Mystic Topaz Topaz
Mystic Topaz Classification
Common Name Mystic Topaz
Mystic Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.49
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Mystic topaz is a type II clarity stone. Stones have a coating on the pavilion or crown of stone There might scratches of treated surface of the stone that show colorless areas underneath. Stones sometimes contain long tube-like cavities containing liquid, healed fractures and areas that look like they are starting to cleave. Stones might include 2-phase and 3-phase inclusions some of which contain more than one liquid that have not been mixed. Surface treated green topaz is blue green in appearance and looks spotty there might also be blue color concentrations in surface reaching fractures.
Stability Fair

Blue Topaz

The color in blue topaz is caused by color centers induced by natural or artificial radiation. Blue topaz caused by natural radiation is rare. Almost all of the blue topaz in the market is treated after it is mined. The color ranges from deep greenish blue of London blue topaz, the medium blue of Swiss blue, and the paler blue tones of sky blue and glacier blue.

Blue Topaz Topaz
Blue Topaz Classification
Common Name Blue Topaz
Blue Topaz Optical Properties
Pleochroism weak to moderate
Blue Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.49
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Blue stones have Type I clarity, Sometimes two and three phase inclusions
Stability Good

Imperial Topaz

At the height of Imperial Russia's power, orange-pink topaz was brought from Brazil to decorate the jewelry of the Tzarina. Since then, these colors have been known as imperial topaz, and still today remains one of the most coveted topaz varieties. Interestingly enough, some sources dispute this legend and state that imperial topaz was indeed named in honor of the Brazilian ruler in power at the time, Emperor Don Pedro. Classified as a rare collector's gem, the world's supply of imperial topaz comes from sources in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is generally the reddish-orange or orange-red variety of topaz that's considered "imperial." Some also consider yellowish-orange, cognac-colored and pure orange to be imperial topaz.

Imperial Topaz Topaz
Imperial Topaz Classification
Common Name Imperial Topaz
Imperial Topaz Optical Properties
Dispersion Weak
Refractive Index 1.630-1.638
Pleochroism Generally weak
Imperial Topaz Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 3.52
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Imperial topaz is a type II clarity stone. Stones sometimes contain long tube-like cavities containing liquid, healed fractures and areas that look like they are starting to cleave.Stones might include 2-phase and 3-phase inclusions some of which contain more than one liquid that have not been mixed.
Stability Good
Tim Matthews

Author

Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.