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Marble is a granular metamorphic rock formed under the influence of heat and pressure, and consists of a mass of interlocking calcite or dolomite grains. Pure marble is white, and some other marbles take their common names from their color or mineral impurities. Marble is often used for fine building material or sculpture, thanks to its beautiful appearance.

Marble Polished
Marble Classification
Common Name Marble
Species Rock
Marble Optical Properties
Transparency Semitranslucent - Opaque
Refractive Index 1.486-1.658
Birefringence 0.172
Optic Character NA
Polariscope Reaction Aggregate (AGG)
Fluorescence SWUV: Variable
LWUV: Variable
Pleochroism None
Marble Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 3
Streak Varies By Color
Specific Gravity 2.650-2.750 Typical:2.700
Toughness Varies
Inclusions Marble is often dyed.
Luster Vitreous, Greasy
Stability Fair
Fracture Uneven, Granular, Splintery
Cleavage None
Marble Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name calcium carbonate
Chemical Formula CaCO3
Crystal System Trigonal
Chemistry Classification Carbonate

Marble Colors

  • Black Marble Black
  • White Marble White
  • Orange Marble Orange
  • Red Marble Red
  • Pink Marble Pink
  • Green Marble Green
  • Gray Marble Gray
  • Brown Marble Brown
  • Blue Marble Blue

Countries of Origin

Niger (the); Papua New Guinea; Cambodia; Gambia (the); Kazakhstan; Paraguay; Solomon Islands; Montserrat; Unknown; Mali; Guadeloupe; Panama; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Argentina; Seychelles; Belize; Zambia; Bahrain; Guinea-Bissau; Saint Barthelemy; Namibia; Finland; Georgia; Yemen; Tanzania, United Republic Of; Eritrea; Puerto Rico; Viet Nam; Aruba; Madagascar; Libya; Sweden; Malawi; Andorra; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Liechtenstein; Russian Federation (the); Poland; Bulgaria; Jordan; United States Minor Outlying Islands (the); Tunisia; Tuvalu; Kenya; French Polynesia; Djibouti; Lebanon; Azerbaijan; Cuba; Mauritania; Saint Lucia; Guernsey; Congo (the Democratic Republic of the); Mayotte; Israel; San Marino; Australia; Tajikistan; Myanmar; Cameroon; Gibraltar; Cyprus; Malaysia; Iceland; Oman; Bosnia And Herzegovina; Armenia; Gabon; Korea (the Republic of); Luxembourg; Brazil; Algeria; Cabo Verde; Jersey; Slovenia; Colombia; Ecuador; Iran (Islamic Republic of); United States of America (the); Vanuatu; Honduras; Italy; Antarctica; Turks and Caicos Islands (the); Nauru; Haiti; Afghanistan; Burundi; British Indian Ocean Territory (the); Singapore; French Guiana; American Samoa; Christmas Island; China; Martinique; Sudan (the); Kyrgyzstan; Comoros (the); United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the); Reunion; Saint Pierre And Miquelon; Cote D'Ivoire; Bhutan; Multiple; Romania; Togo; Cocos (Keeling) Islands (the); Dominican Republic (the); Uzbekistan; Holy See (the); Netherlands (the); Pitcairn; Zimbabwe; Montenegro; Dominica; Indonesia; Benin; Angola; Virgin Islands (British); Brunei Darussalam; Portugal; New Caledonia; Grenada; Moldova (the Republic of); Greece; Latvia; Mongolia; Morocco; Guatemala; Guyana; Iraq; Chile; Nepal; Cayman Islands (the); Isle of Man; Ukraine; Ghana; Anguilla; Saint Vincent And The Grenadines; India; Canada; Maldives; Turkey; Belgium; Faroe Islands (the); South Africa; Bermuda; Aland Islands; Jamaica; Peru; Turkmenistan; Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of); Germany; United Arab Emirates (the); Fiji; Tokelau; Hong Kong; Guinea; Chad; Somalia; Thailand; Cook Islands (the); Equatorial Guinea; Kiribati; Costa Rica; Saint Martin (French part); Kuwait; Nigeria; Central African Republic (the); Palestine, State of; Croatia; Sao Tome And Principe; Syrian Arab Republic; Sri Lanka; Uruguay; Timor-Leste; Switzerland; Samoa; Spain; Liberia; Burkina Faso; Swaziland; Lao People's Democratic Republic (the); Palau; Estonia; Wallis and Futuna; Niue; Svalbard And Jan Mayen; Austria; Mozambique; El Salvador; Monaco; Guam; Lesotho; Tonga; Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands; Western Sahara; Hungary; Republic of Kosovo; South Sudan; Congo (the); Japan; Belarus; Curacao; Mauritius; Taiwan (Province of China); Bouvet Island; Albania; Bolivia (Plurinational State of); Norfolk Island; Trinidad And Tobago; Virgin Islands (U.S.); New Zealand; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Senegal; Micronesia (Federated States of); Ethiopia; Macedonia (the former Yugoslav Republic of); Czechia; Egypt; Falkland Islands (the) [Malvinas]; Marshall Islands (the); Sierra Leone; Malta; Saudi Arabia; South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands; Pakistan; Ireland; Qatar; Slovakia; France; Lithuania; Serbia; Bahamas (the); French Southern Territories (the); Rwanda; Saint Kitts And Nevis; Bangladesh; Barbados; Nicaragua; Norway; Botswana; Macao; Denmark; Mexico; Northern Mariana Islands (the); Uganda; Suriname; Philippines (the); Greenland; Antigua And Barbuda


Marble is a granular metamorphic rock formed under the influence of heat and pressure. It consists of a mass of interlocking calcite or dolomite grains. Yet marble is so much more than granular rock. Pure marble is a warm white, but it can be an array of lovely shades, based on other minerals found within it. Connemara marble, for example, is a deep green. Most marble boasts fascinating swirls that are often called veins. Geologically speaking, they come from the layers of sedimentary material which form marble. Artistically speaking, they add intrigue and an unmistakable, unique richness to every stone. Marble is most often used decoratively, for fine building material, or for sculpture. It also cuts into bead and/or cabochon jewelry we wear and enjoy.

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Sisk Gemology Reference

Showcasing 200 gemstones in over 1,000 pages and accompanied by more than 2,000 photos, The Sisk Gemology Reference is a must-have in every collector’s library. Each comprehensive, three-volume set features state-of-the-art photography, detailed illustrations, and scientifically precise descriptions to create an entrancing experience for gemstone amateurs and afficionados alike.

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Connemara Marble

Ireland’s unofficial national gemstone, Connemara marble is a calcite marble that contains large amounts of serpentine. Green in color, its name comes from the locality in western Ireland where it is mined. Mining of this ornamental rock is one of Ireland’s oldest industries and there’s even a visitor’s center devoted to this decorative stone. The perfect stone to represent Ireland, which has long been known as the ‘Emerald Isle’, Connemara marble has been carved into a wide variety of decorative items throughout history. Known since the Stone Age, Connemara marble has also been used over the centuries as a medium of exchange.

Connemara Marble Marble
Connemara Marble Classification
Common Name Connemara Marble
Connemara Marble Characteristic Physical properties
Specific Gravity 2.50
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Serpentine
Stability Fair

Onyx Marble

The term onyx marble is a misnomer sometimes used to describe a rock made up of alternating layers of different colored calcite.The alternating bands closely resemble those that can form in onyx, however, onyx is a silicate mineral and calcite is a carbonate and their physical properties are dramatically different.

Onyx Marble Marble
Onyx Marble Classification
Common Name Onyx Marble
Onyx Marble Characteristic Physical properties
Toughness Fair
Inclusions Onyx marble is a banded granular aggregate and is often dyed.
Stability Fair
Tim Matthews


Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.