Madeira Citrine

saf-ahyuh r
November Birthstone

The Madeira name comes from the Brazilian word meaning ‘wood’ or ‘wood colored’. Most madeira citrine comes from heating amethyst with a brownish core to get the warm yellow or orange color. The primary sources come from the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay, Zambia, and Madagascar.

Madeira Citrine Polished
Madeira Citrine Classification
Common Name Madeira Citrine
Species Quartz
Madeira Citrine Optical Properties
Transparency Translucent-Transparent
Dispersion Strength: Weak Fire Value: 0.013
Refractive Index 1.544-1.553 Tolerance: very constant
Birefringence 0.009
Optic Character Uniaxial
Optic Sign Positive
Polariscope Reaction Doubly Refractive (DR)
Fluorescence SWUV: Inert
LWUV: Inert
CCF Reaction None
Pleochroism Dichroic, weak to moderate shades of yellow
Madeira Citrine Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 7
Toughness Good
Inclusions Citrine is a type I clarity. Color zoning in citrine is often present in the form of "tiger stripes" or "zebra stripes". Stones may contain crystals, negative crystals, liquid inclusions, two-phase inclusions and partially-healed fractures.
Luster Vitreous
Stability Good
Fracture Conchoidal
Cleavage None
Madeira Citrine Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name silicon dioxide (aka silica)
Chemical Formula SiO2
Crystal System Trigonal

Madeira Citrine Colors

  • Orange Madeira Citrine Orange
  • Yellow Madeira Citrine Yellow

Countries of Origin

Uruguay; Brazil; Madagascar; Zambia


Madeira citrine was often confused with topaz before modern gemological testing.


Avoid jewelers torch.

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Tim Matthews


Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.