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November Birthstone

Citrine is one of the most popular gemstones in the quartz group. Prized for its excellent transparency, citrine is one of November's birthstones. Naturally, it occurs in close proximity to amethyst and is found in beautiful golden, mandarin orange and madeira red hues. It's possible that quartz crystals that grew naturally as amethyst or smoky quartz were turned into citrine by natural heat from nearby magma activity. Today, many of the citrines on the market are actually heated amethyst or smoky quartz.

Citrine Polished
Citrine Classification
Common Name Citrine
Species Quartz
Citrine Optical Properties
Transparency Transparent
Dispersion Strength: Weak Fire Value: 0.013
Refractive Index 1.544-1.553
Tolerance:very constant
Birefringence 0.009
Optic Character Uniaxial
Optic Sign Positive
Polariscope Reaction Doubly Refractive (DR)
Fluorescence SWUV: Inert
LWUV: Inert
Pleochroism Dichroic, weak to moderate shades of yellow
Citrine Characteristic Physical Properties
Hardness 7
Streak White
Specific Gravity 2.640-2.690 Range:0.03/-0.02 Typical:2.660
Toughness Good
Inclusions Citrine is a type I clarity. Color zoning in citrine is often present in the form of "tiger stripes" or "zebra stripes". Stones may contain crystals, negative crystals, liquid inclusions, two-phase inclusions and partially-healed fractures.
Luster Vitreous
Stability Good
Fracture Conchoidal
Cleavage None
Citrine Chemistry & Crystallography
Chemical Name silicon dioxide (aka silica)
Chemical Formula SiO2
Crystal System Trigonal
Chemistry Classification Silicate

Citrine Colors

  • Brown Citrine Brown
  • Bi-color Citrine Bi-color
  • Yellow Citrine Yellow
  • Orange Citrine Orange

Alternate Names

Madeira Citrine

Countries of Origin

Tanzania, United Republic Of; Uruguay; Belize; Madagascar; Thailand; Bolivia (Plurinational State of); India; Mozambique; Unknown; China; Namibia; Russian Federation (the); Brazil; Nigeria


It's like owning a piece of the setting sun. Such rich and golden light! Citrine is one of the most popular gemstones in the quartz group. Its excellent transparency and inimitable golden color (which comes from iron) makes it a favorite. It typically grows close to its sister stone, amethyst, and is sometimes found in beautiful mandarin-orange and madeira-red hues. There is evidence that suggests the heat from magma activity naturally transforms some amethyst or smoky quartz into citrine. We pay homage to mother nature in that many of the citrines on the market are heat-treated amethyst or smoky quartz.


Citrine is a member of the quartz family and a 7 on the Mohs scale of hardness. It's a sister stone to the popular amethyst and is very wearable. Clean it with warm water, mild soap, rinse thoroughly and dry with a soft cloth.

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More About Citrine

It's believed by some that citrine repels negative energy. That would make it ideal for people who are concerned about negative energy in their environments. And truly, this sunny golden stone must surely radiate good things! In fact, some people believe that citrine carries the powers of the sun. One of our favorite bits of folkloric information is that when life's inevitable disasters strike, citrine helps you "pick up the broken pieces", start fresh, and feel sunny again.

Citrine Gemstone

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Showcasing 200 gemstones in over 1,000 pages and accompanied by more than 2,000 photos, The Sisk Gemology Reference is a must-have in every collector’s library. Each comprehensive, three-volume set features state-of-the-art photography, detailed illustrations, and scientifically precise descriptions to create an entrancing experience for gemstone amateurs and afficionados alike.

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Tim Matthews


Tim Matthews

Tim Matthews is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jewelry Television® (JTV), as well as a member of the company's Board of Directors. He oversees and leads all aspects of the company's powerful omni-digital retail platform that uniquely specializes in fine jewelry and gemstones. His passion for business and gemstones has led him to become a recognized expert in the field of gemology. He is a life member of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) and has earned Gem-A's highest degrees, the Gemmology (FGA) and Diamond (DGA) diplomas. He is also a Graduate Gemologist (GG) of the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and has also completed GIA's Graduate Diplomas in Diamonds, Colored Stones and Pearls. Under his leadership, JTV has become the leader in the sourcing and selling of color gemstones and jewelry.

This page was created on June 27, 2014.

This page was last edited on October 24, 2019.