Citrine Gemstone & Information | Gemopedia by JTV | Gemopedia™

Citrine

Citrine is one of the most popular gemstones in the quartz group. Prized for its excellent transparency, citrine is one of November's birthstones. Naturally, it occurs in close proximity to amethyst and is found in beautiful golden, mandarin orange and madeira red hues. It's possible that quartz crystals that grew naturally as amethyst or smoky quartz were turned into citrine by natural heat from nearby magma activity. Today, many of the citrines on the market are actually heated amethyst or smoky quartz.

Colors

Yellow To Yellowish Orange

  • Citrine classification

    CommonName
    Citrine
    Species
    Quartz
    Variety
    Citrine
    Colors
    Yellow To Yellowish Orange
    AlternateNames
    Madeira Citrine
    GemstoneGroups
    KeySeparations
    refractive index, birefringence, optic character and optic figure. A bull's-eye optic figure is determinative for quartz. Might also show Airy's spiral. Careful observation that reveals Brazil-law twinning separates citrine from scapolite with similar properties.
    ClassificationComments
    Citrine is the common variety name for transparent quartz with a predominantly yellow to orange body color. Stones might be piezoelectric: able to generate electricity produced by mechanical pressure, Pyroelectricity: development of opposite charges at the ends of the axis due to change in temperature and triboluminescent: luminescence produced by friction. Misnomers: topaz quartz, Spanish topaz, Saxon topaz, Madeira topaz, citrine topaz, topaz quartz.
  • Citrine chemistry & crystallography

    ChemicalName
    silicon dioxide (aka silica)
    ChemicalFormula
    SiO2
    Synthesis
    CrystalSystem
    Trigonal
    ChemistryClassification
    Silicate
    Nature
    Natural
    Crystallinity
    Crystalline
    ChemistryComments
  • Citrine optical properties

    Transparency
    Transparent
    Dispersion
    Strength: weak fire Value: 0.013
    OpticalComments
    RefractiveIndex
    1.544-1.553
    Tolerance:very constant
    Birefringence
    0.009-0.009
    OpticCharacter
    Uniaxial
    OpticSign
    Positive
    PolariscopeReaction
    Doubly Refractive (DR)
    Fluorescence
    SWUV: Inert
    LWUV: Inert
    CCFReaction
    Pleochroism
    Dichroic, weak to moderate shades of yellow
  • Citrine characteristic physical properties

    Hardness
    7
    CharacteristicComments
    Streak
    White
    SpecificGravity
    2.64-2.69 Range:0.03/-0.02 Typical:2.66
    Toughness
    Good
    Inclusions
    Citrine is a type I clarity. Color zoning in citrine is often present in the form of "tiger stripes" or "zebra stripes". Stones may contain crystals, negative crystals, liquid inclusions, two-phase inclusions and partially-healed fractures.
    Luster
    Vitreous
    Stability
    Good
    Fracture
    Conchoidal
    Cleavage
    None