Ruby | Gemopedia

The sole birthstone for July, ruby is the brightest and boldest of all birthstones. Called ratnaraj, meaning the "King of Gems" by ancient Hindus, ruby's association with the blood of life has earned it powerful praise and high esteem since antiquity. Ruby is mentioned at least four times in the Bible, always in reference to beauty and wisdom. Its passionate red color makes ruby an ideal choice for a romantic gift that comes with a rich legacy.
Colors
Slightly Orangy Red To Strong Red, Slightly To Purplish Red, Brownish Red

Ruby Classification

Common Name

Ruby

Species

Corundum

Variety

Ruby

Colors

Slightly Orangy Red To Strong Red, Slightly To Purplish Red, Brownish Red

Alternate Names

Gemstone Groups

Key Separations

refractive index, birefringence, pleochroism, magnification and spectrum. The observation of natural internal characteristics is a key element in distinguishing natural ruby from its synthetic counterparts.

Comments

Ruby Optical Properties

Transparency

Transparent - Opaque

Refractive Index

1.762-1.77
Tolerance:(+0.009/-0.005)

Birefringence

0.008-0.01

Optic Character

Uniaxial

Optic Sign

Negative

Polariscope Reaction

Doubly Refractive (DR)

Fluorescence

SWUV: Weak to strong red
LWUV: Weak to moderate red

CCF Reaction

Red glow

Pleochroism

Dichroic, moderate to strong orangy red and purplish red

Dispersion

Strength: moderate fire Value: 0.018

Comments

Ruby Chemistry & Crystallography

Chemical Name

aluminum oxide

Chemical Formula

Al2O3

Synthesis

Crystal System

Trigonal

Classification

Oxide

Nature

Natural

Crystallinity

Crystalline

Comments

Ruby Characteristic Physical Properties

Hardness

9

Streak

White

Specific Gravity

3.95-4.1 Typical:4

Toughness

Excellent

Inclusions

This stone has type II clarity. Sometimes rubies have silk, rutile, boehmite, apatite, calcite or zircon crystals, fingerprint and negative crystal inclusions. Some stones show hexagonal growth and color zoning. Untreated stones will usually have inclusions intact. Heat treated stones will have fracture halos, discoid fractures or snowballs around crystal inclusions (untreated stones from magmatic areas might also show these characteristics). Silk will be broken and might show sintered areas especially around the girdle.

Luster

Bright Vitreous

Stability

Excellent

Fracture

Conchoidal, Uneven

Cleavage

None

Comments

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