Jade | Gemopedia

Jade has been treasured for some 7,000 years for its unique luster, lovely color and impeccable toughness. This precious gem has always had special significance in many Asian cultures, and can be compared to the West's admiration of diamonds and gold. For centuries, nephrite jade and jadeite were considered one and the same. It was not until 1863 that they were identified as different minerals with a similar appearance and properties.
Alternate
Names
New Zealand Greenstone, New Zealand Jade, Mutton Fat, Chicken Bone, Tomb Jade Or Grave Jade, Polar Jade
Colors
Light To Dark Grayish Green
, Light To Dark Yellow To Brown
, White
, Light To Dark Gray
, Black; Often Mottled; Light To Dark Pinkish Lavender If Dyed

Jade Classification

Common Name

Jade

Species

Nephrite

Variety

Colors

light to dark grayish green, light to dark yellow to brown, white, light to dark gray, black; often mottled; light to dark pinkish lavender if dyed

Alternate Names

New Zealand greenstone, New Zealand jade, mutton fat, chicken bone, tomb jade or grave jade, polar jade

Gemstone Groups

Key Separations

appearance, RI and SG. Scratch test can be used but is destructive.

Comments

Commonly has a 1.61 spot reading.New Zealand greenstone, New Zealand jade or spinach jade: dark grayish greenMutton fat: translucent white to very light yellowChicken bone: opaque white to very light brown or grayTomb or grave jade: ancient burial pieces with surface material altered to a brown or a white chalky looking texture. Polar jade: bright green

Jade Optical Properties

Transparency

Translucent To Opaque

Refractive Index

1.606-1.632 Tolerance: (+0.009/-0.006)

Birefringence

Optic Character

Optic Sign

Polariscope Reaction

aggregate (AGG)

Fluorescence

SWUV: Inert
LWUV: Inert

CCF Reaction

Pleochroism

Dispersion

Strength: none

Comments

Jade Chemistry & Crystallography

Chemical Name

calcium magnesium or iron silicate

Chemical Formula

Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2

Synthesis

Crystal System

Monoclinic

Classification

Silicate

Nature

Natural

Crystallinity

Polycrystalline

Comments

Jade Characteristic Physical Properties

Hardness

6-6.5

Streak

white

Specific Gravity

2.9-3.1

Toughness

Excellent

Inclusions

Stone may have black inclusions. If the stone is dyed it might show color concentrations.

Luster

Vitreous To Greasy

Stability

Good

Fracture

Splintery To Granular

Cleavage

Not Visible Due To Aggregate Structure

Comments

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