Jade | Gemopedia

Jade has been treasured for some 7,000 years for its unique luster, lovely color and impeccable toughness. This precious gem has always had special significance in many Asian cultures, and can be compared to the West's admiration of diamonds and gold. For centuries, nephrite jade and jadeite were considered one and the same. It was not until 1863 that they were identified as different minerals with a similar appearance and properties.
Alternate
Names
Lavender Jadeite, New Blue Jade
Colors
White
, Greenish Blue To Blue
, Light To Dark Green
, Yellow To Reddish Orange
, Brown
, Gray
, Black
, Light To Dark Purple-Violet To Violetish Purple Often Mottled

Jade Classification

Common Name

Jade

Species

Jadeite

Variety

Colors

white, greenish blue to blue, light to dark green, yellow to reddish orange, brown, gray, black, light to dark purple-violet to violetish purple often mottled

Alternate Names

lavender jadeite, new blue jade

Gemstone Groups

Key Separations

RI, spectrum, SG, and sometimes appearance. The detection of dyes might require advanced lab testing. Scratch test can be used but is destructive. Dyed jadeite stones will have a broad band in the red area of the spectrum and natural jadeite colored with chrome will only have 3 lines in the yellow, orange and red.

Comments

Idocrase mixed with hydrogrossular garnet Imperial jade / gem jade / emerald jade is considered the finest quality of jade. It is semitransparent and has an even, intense emerald-green color.Apple green jade is a vibrant medium yellowish green about the color of a granny smith apple.Chloromelanite is semitranslucent to opaque variety of jade that can be very dark green to black. The stones get their color from chromium and iron. The stone can have uneven color actually a mixture of jadeite and other pyroxene minerals which are minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.Yunan jade the dark green variety that is semitranslucent to opaque.Moss-in-snow is translucent mottled white and has green veining, patches or spots called streamers.Fei-ts'ui or Kingfisher jade comes from Burma and is an intense medium green less intense than Imperial jade.

Jade Optical Properties

Transparency

Semitransparent To Opaque

Refractive Index

1.666-1.68 Tolerance: (+0.008/-0.008)

Birefringence

Optic Character

Optic Sign

Polariscope Reaction

aggregate (AGG)

Fluorescence

SWUV: light green:generally inertlight yellow: generally inertwhite: generally inertlight purple: generally inertsome dyed lavender: weaker moderate to strong orangeblue and dark colors: generally inert
LWUV: light green: inert to weak whitelight yellow: inert to weak greenwhite: inert to weak yellowlight purple: inert to weak white or weak brownish redsome dyed lavender: weaker moderate to strong orangeblue and dark colors: inert

CCF Reaction

Pleochroism

Dispersion

Comments

Jade Chemistry & Crystallography

Chemical Name

sodium aluminum silicate

Chemical Formula

NaAlSi2O6

Synthesis

Crystal System

Monoclinic

Classification

Silicate

Nature

Natural

Crystallinity

Polycrystalline

Comments

Jade Characteristic Physical Properties

Hardness

6.5-7

Streak

white

Specific Gravity

3.25-3.4

Toughness

Excellent

Inclusions

Jadeite is made up tightly packed crystals and you might see the crystals sparkle on areas that have not been polished on larger-grained items. Stone often are unevenly colored with root like mottling. If the item is dyed it might be possible to see dye concentrations. Dyed jadeite is usually unevenly colored but sometimes you might be able to see dye concentrations under magnification. You might observe the orange peel effect on older pieces due to differential hardness of the stone. The use of modern polishing compounds has all but eliminated the orange peel problem.

Luster

Vitreous To Greasy

Stability

Good

Fracture

Splintery, Granular Or Subconchodial

Cleavage

Not Visible Due To Aggregate Structure

Comments

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